Concrete is one of the most widely used building materials in the world. It is a composite material made up of cement, aggregates, water, and other additives. Depending on the type of project, there are different types of concrete available to suit the needs of the structure. Normal strength concrete is the most common type of concrete used in construction.
It is made up of cement, fine aggregates, and water. The maximum particle size in fine aggregates is always less than 6.35 mm, and sand is commonly used as a fine aggregate with a grain size of around 2 mm. This type of concrete has a compressive strength between 10 MPa-40 MPa and is suitable for residential areas that are not close to fault lines or volcanoes. Lightweight concrete is made with various types of aggregates such as pumice, slag, shales, expanded clays, perlite, and vermiculite.
It has a very low thermal conductivity and is used for thermal insulation, to protect steel structures, in long-range bridge decks, and even as building blocks. Reinforced concrete is a special type of concrete in which reinforcing bars are tensioned before they are embedded in the concrete. This arrangement makes the lower section of reinforced concrete stronger against stress and helps prevent stress cracks from developing in unstressed reinforced concrete. Fiber-reinforced concrete uses steel fibers of 10 to 20 microns in diameter and 10 to 50 mm in length to increase resistance to cracking.
Up to 30 percent replacement of fine aggregates and 20 percent replacement of cement have been reported. Permeable concrete is prepared so that water can pass through it. It has between 15 and 20 percent holes so that water can pass through it. This type of concrete is used to recharge groundwater.
Ferro concrete, also called ferrocement, is a type of reinforced concrete structure composed of cement, fine aggregates, chicken wire mesh, and water. It was developed in 1940 by the Italian architect P. Nervi and can be used to build a variety of structural forms. Asphalt concrete mixes are used for different functions in pavement structures than asphalt surface mixtures. Asphalt cement requires heat to mix the aggregates and asphalt together. Fresh concrete has several applications as it can be easily cast into rectangles, squares, circles, and other shapes depending on the type of project. RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) uses steel rods, fibers, meshes, and bars to ensure a high level of strength.
It can be used for a variety of projects without compromising structural integrity. Glass concrete uses recycled glass as an aggregate in the mixture. The properties can be modified depending on the type of cement used. Air-entrained concrete is infused with air particles by adding foaming agents such as resins, fatty acids, and alcohol. Limestone concrete is made from natural hydraulic lime, sharp sand, and glass fibers (optional). Pigments are added for color purposes. Air-dragged concrete uses fibers to increase flexibility, tensile strength, resilience, and other qualities that allow effective loading.